Links & Glossary

(Abbr) Term
  Anthropometric Measurement
  Bellmon Analysis & Determination
  Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust
CCC Commodity Credit Corporation
  Complementary Foods
CS Cooperating Sponsor
DAP Development Activity Proposal
  Direct Dollar Procurement
  The John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program
FACT Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act (Farm Bill, FACT Act)
  Food Aid
FACG Food Aid Consultative Group
FAM Food Aid Management
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  Food Deficit Countries
  Food for Peace Program
FFP Food for Progress Program
FFW Food-for-Work
  Food Safety
  Food Security
see also: Food access; Food availabilty; Food utilization
FSU Former Soviet Union

Global Food for Education Initiative

  Humanitarian Assistance
IDP Internally Displaced Persons
IPHD International Partnership for Human Development
IO International Organization
IFECN McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program
IGO Intergovernmental Organization
MCHN Maternal Child Health and Nutrition
NGO Nongovernmental Organization
  Nutrition Security
OFDA Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance
P.L. 480 Public Law 83-480. Reauthorized under the 2002 Farm Bill through 2007
PVC USAID Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation
PVO Private Voluntary Organization
  Section 416(b)
  Section 202(e) of Farm Bill
  Supplementary Feeding
  Title I
  Title II
  Title III
USAID The U.S. Agency for International Development
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
  Vulnerable People
WFP World Food Programme
WHO World Health Organization
(Abbr) Offices & Programs
(Abbr) Term
  Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust
CCC Commodity Credit Corporation
CS Cooperating Sponsor
DAP Development Activity Proposal
  Direct Dollar Procurement
  The John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program
FACT Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act (Farm Bill, FACT Act)
FAM Food Aid Management
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  Food for Peace Program
FFP Food for Progress Program
  Food Aid Consultative Group

Global Food for Education Initiative

IFECN McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program
IPHD International Partnership for Human Development
OFDA Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance
P.L. 480 Public Law 83-480. Reauthorized under the 2002 Farm Bill through 2007
PVC USAID Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation
  Section 416(b)
  Section 202(e) of Farm Bill
  Title I
  Title II
  Title III
USAID The U.S. Agency for International Development
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
WFP World Food Programme
WHO World Health Organization

OFFICES & PROGRAMS {= external link }

Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust:
Reauthorized by the 2002 Farm Bill through 2007, this Trust was established under the Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust Act of 1998 to meet emergency humanitarian food needs in developing countries. Up to 4-million metric tons can be held in the Trust and can be any combination of wheat, rice, corn, or sorghum.

Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC):
Operating unit of the US Department of Agriculture, under the management of an Undersecretary for International Affairs and Commodity Programs, that manages export credits, surplus stocks and acquisition of commodities for PL 480 and Section 416(b) purposes. 

Any foreign government, U.S. registered voluntary agency, or intergovernmental organization, which enters into an agreement with the U.S. Government for the use of P.L. 480 Title II, agricultural commodities and/or funds, including local currencies. 

Development Activity Proposal (DAP):
The document prepared by a CS and submitted to Food for Peace requesting funding for the implementation of a Title II program in a particular country or region. DAP may seek approval to implement the proposed program for up to five years. The guidelines for DAPs are updated annually.
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Direct Dollar Procurement:
Under special circumstances, USAID may also utilize dollar appropriations for direct procurement of food. The International Disaster Assistance account is used for local food procurement in emergencies. Under the Freedom Support Act, USAID manages a small food aid program ($38 million in FY 1994) for countries of the former Soviet Union. 

A relatively structured analytical effort undertaken selectively to answer specific management questions regarding programs or activities. Evaluation focuses on why results are or are not being achieved, on unintended consequences, or on issues of interpretation, relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, or sustainability. It addresses the validity of the causal hypothesis underlying strategic objectives and embedded in results frameworks. Evaluative activities may use different methodologies or take many different forms, e.g. ranging from highly participatory review workshops to highly focused assessments relying on technical experts. All USAID and USDA food assistance programs include an evaluation component.

The John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program:
This USAID-administered program, operated under Title V of P.L 480, strives to improve global food production and marketing by transferring technical skills of the U.S. agricultural community to farmers in participating countries. This Program was renamed to honor one of the pilots killed on September 11, 2001, who was a participant in this program. Minimum funding for the Farmer-to-Farmer Program through 2007 was increased from 0.4 percent to 0.5 percent of the spending appropriated for P.L. 480. The Bill emphasizes Caribbean Basin and Sub-Saharan African programs by adding, within Farmer-to-Farmer, two bilateral exchange programs–the Caribbean Basin and Farmers from Africa Programs.

Food Aid Management (FAM):
Food Aid Management (FAM) was created in 1989 by five U.S. private voluntary organizations (PVOs) to “promote the efficient and effective use of food aid resources to help alleviate hunger and contribute to food security”. The FAM membership has grown to 16 U.S. PVOs and FAM enjoys observer status with the World Food Programme and EuronAid. FAM pursues the following three objectives in order to achieve its goal: 1) facilitate and promote the development of food aid standards; 2) promote the food aid and food security knowledge base of PVOs, USAID staff, and other collaborators through information exchange and coordination; 3) facilitate collaboration between PVOs, USAID, and appropriate development and humanitarian professionals by organizing fora of discussion.

Food for Peace Program:
The United States Agency for International Development Food for Peace Program, through funding provided by Public Law 480, Title II , makes commodity donations to Cooperating Sponsors (Private Voluntary Organizations, Cooperatives, and International Organization Agencies) to address the needs of food security in both through 5-year development projects and through emergency food assistance. Food for Peace is the same as P.L. 480 

Food for Progress (FFP) Program:
Food for Progress program is authorized under Section 1110 of the Food Security Act of 1985. The authority provides for a responsive food aid mechanism to encourage and support the expansion of private enterprise in recipient countries and is meant to help countries seeking to implement democratic and market reforms. FFPr is implemented by USDA. 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO):
FAO is the United Nations agency responsible for promoting agricultural development, dissemination of advanced agricultural techniques, combating plant/livestock diseases, promoting soil conservation, tracking global trends in food production and consumption, monitoring food deficit problems, and to promote sharing of knowledge in food processing, and food safety. The Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) of FAO estimates food production and food needs in famine-prone countries. 

Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act (Farm Bill, FACT Act):
Public Law 101-624 passed by Congress in 1990 that extends USG loans and grants of commodities to developing countries for five years (1991-1996). Food resources are directed to five purposes:

  • to combat world hunger and malnutrition and their causes;
  • to promote broad based, equitable and sustainable development;
  • to expand international trade;
  • to develop and expand export markets for US commodities;
  • to foster the development of private enterprise and democratic participation in developing countries.
This Bill was superceded by the 1996 and 2002 Farm Bills. 
Food Aid Consultative Group:
Established by Section 205 of the 1990 Farm Bill, this group is to meet regularly (two mandatory meetings per year) and makes recommendations regarding Title II regulations, guidance and procedures. Members of the group include: USAID Administrator, the USDA Under Secretary for International Affairs and representatives of each PVO participating in the Title II program or receiving planning assistance funds, plus representatives from indigenous PVOs in recipient countries. FACG continues its activities as specified in the 2002 Farm Bill. 

Food-for-Work (FFW):
The programming of food aid through Food-for-Work (FFW) activities helps address temporary household food insecurity while supporting key construction and rehabilitation activities that lead to longer term, more sustainable food security results. Participants receive food as a compensation for participating community projects.
WFP on Food for Work:  USAID on Food for Work: 

Global Food for Education Initiative (GFEI):
See McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (IFECN).Kansas City Commodity Office (KCCO):
This United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) office is responsible for the acquisition, handling, transportation, and disposition of Title II commodities, including fiscal and claims responsibilities prior to export. 
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International Partnershiop for Human Development (IPHD):
Responds to the unmet needs of poor people by providing them with funds, food, medicine, and medical supplies to improve nutrition, health care, schooling, vocational training, credit for women, and agriculture. IPHD provides help in Moldova, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Guinea Bissau, Romania, Congo Republic, and Guinea. IPHD reaches 500,000 children in Moldova, Guinea-Bissau, and the Congo Republic daily with school meals. The organization provides credit to more than 15,000 farmers and is developing food banks for farmers in the Central African Republic, Congo Republic, and Guinea. IPHD implements village water systems and malaria and HIV/AIDS prevention programs in the Central African Republic, Congo Republic, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, and Romania. 

McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (IFECN):
Previously known as the Global Food for Education Initiative, this program was announced by President Clinton on July 23, 2000, building on ideas promoted by Ambassador George McGovern and former Senator Bob Dole. Under IFECN, USDA donates surplus U.S. agricultural commodities for use in school feeding and pre-school nutrition projects in developing countries. School feeding programs help assure that children attend and remain in school, improve childhood development and achievement, and thereby contribute to more self-reliant, productive societies.
In the first year pilot program for FY 2001, USDA’s Commodity Credit Corporation committed $300 million for U.S. commodities and transportation. Commodities were donated under the authority of the Section 416(b) program. Fifty-four USDA-approved projects have been conducted through the UN World Food Program, private voluntary organizations, and eligible foreign governments. IFECN was reauthorized through 2007 under the 2002 Farm Bill as the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program, with CCC funding of $ 100 million for 2003. 

The selling of agricultural commodities to obtain foreign currency for use in U.S. assistance programs. PVOs monetize USG donated commodities through PL480 Title II and USDA Food for Progress and 416 (b) programs. Monetization can be conducted by direct negotiation with government parastatals or through sealed-bid auctions to wholesalers and mid-level merchants. Various agencies have monetization within their programs. To read the latest report of the Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA) to the Congress on Food Aid Monetization from august 11, 2001: 
PDFSource:  • 

Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA):
United States Agency for International Development Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance administers international disaster relief, management and preparedness program and aids victims of natural disasters throughout the world. 

Public Law 83-480. Reauthorized under the 2002 Farm Bill through 2007 (P.L. 480)
P.L. 480 stands for Public Law 83-480. Reauthorized under the 2002 Farm Bill through 2007, P.L. 480 is one of the oldest U.S. food aid programs. It includes three export titles. Each title has different objectives and provides agricultural assistance to countries at different levels of economic development. Title I of the P.L. 480 program is administered by USDA, and Titles II and III (now dormant) are administered by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). 

USAID Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation (PVC):
The USAID Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation (PVC) performs a dual function in USAID. Through the programs it administers, PVC provides direct support to efforts made by the U.S. PVO community (PVOs) and by its local partners (NGOs) to address critical needs in developing countries and emerging democracies. 

Section 416(b):
This program is administered by USDA. Section 416(b) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 provides for overseas donation of surplus agricultural commodities acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) as part of its price support activities. Over the years, this program has provided commodities worth hundreds of millions of dollars to meet emergency needs and for developing countries, most recently in the new independent states of the former Soviet Union. The amount of 416 (b) ebbs and flows with the surplus availability of the U.S. commodities. The Secretary of Agriculture must publish a Federal Register notice with estimates of the commodities and quantities that will be available for Section 416(b) agreements by October 31 of each year. See also Title ITitle II, & Title III

Section 202(e) of Farm Bill:
PL 480 legislation which as of 1990 provides nearly $20 million per year to PVOs and WFP to cover complementary cash costs of food programs in the field. 202(e) grants fund only in-country expenses toward improving the management and efficiency of Title II programs. 

Title I provides for U.S. government financing of sales of U.S. agricultural commodities to developing countries and private entities on concessional credit terms—extended credit periods and low rates of interest charged for the financing.

Title I provides for concessional loans to developing countries to purchase food or agricultural commodities determined to be surplus to the domestic and commercial export requirements of the United States by the Secretary of Agriculture. The USDA administers this program. 

Title II, the Food for Peace Program, provides grant humanitarian assistance. It is designed to combat hunger and malnutrition; to promote broad-based equitable and sustainable development, including agricultural development; to expand international trade; to develop and expand export markets for United States agricultural commodities; and to foster and encourage the development of private enterprise and democratic participation in developing countries. 

In crisis, Title II assistance performs the most basic of functions: it saves lives. Drought, flood, and the ever-increasing number of disasters caused by man rather than nature often lead to life-threatening food needs. Title II emergency programs provide urgent relief to victims of natural disasters such as 1999′s Hurricane Mitch in Central America, and to victims of complex emergencies in countries like Sudan and Sierra Leone, where the negative impact of droughts and floods are compounded by ongoing civil strife.
In non-emergency settings, Title II programs focus on improving agricultural productivity and household nutrition. Food-for-Work programs pay impoverished people in food for their labor on projects that will improve their economies and increase economic opportunities for their communities, such as farm-to-market roads, water systems for irrigation and consumption and food storage facilities. Title II feeding programs encourage mothers to bring their children to health centers where they receive valuable information in areas such as nutrition and health. Through monetization programs, Title II commodities are sold to raise local currency, which is then used to fund development projects designed to increase food security.
In addition, Title II also funds the farmer-to-farmer exchange program, which provides technical assistance to farmers in developing and transitional countries, and a grant program to strengthen the U.S. PVOs who implement P.L. 480 activities. 

Title III
Title III of P.L. 480 funds government-to-government grants for development activities. Title III programs normally include policy reform conditions and frequently generate local currencies for development projects.
The U.S. Government donates Title III agricultural commodities without charge to the recipient country and arranges for and pays the costs of purchasing, processing, handling and transporting the commodities to the port or point of entry in the recipient country. The donated commodities are sold on the domestic market, and revenue generated from the sale in the recipient countries is used to support programs of economic development.
Because Title III commodities most often enter untargeted commercial distribution systems, Title III Agreements may contain commitments by the host government to foster the availability and accessibility of basic foods to the most disenfranchised households.
In May of 1994, USAID approved Title III guidance which states that beginning in 1995 priority will be given to countries where there is the greatest food need, and that the focus of new Title III programs will be on policy reforms and activities directly affecting or improving food production and consumption, including nutrition. 
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USAID – The U.S. Agency for International Development:
The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent federal government agency that provides economic, development and humanitarian assistance around the world in support of the foreign policy goals of the United States. To read more about USAID and history of foreign assistance visit: The USAID Congressional Budget Justification provides statistical information on the foreign assistance programs and activities implemented by USAID.
U.S. private voluntary organizations (PVOs) manage more than half of USAID administered food aid. Drawing on their own resources and management capacity, PVOs provide a unique and invaluable capacity to manage local, community-based programs which directly reach the poor. Local currency generated from the sale of food commodities provides an important complementary resource the PVOs can reinvest in activities designed to improve food security. 

USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture):
In 1862, when President Abraham Lincoln founded the U.S. Department of Agriculture, he called it the “people’s Department.” In Lincoln’s day, 48 percent of the people were farmers who needed good seeds and information to grow their crops. Today, USDA continues Lincoln’s legacy by serving all Americans. USDA remains committed to helping America’s farmers and ranchers:

  • USDA leads the Federal anti-hunger effort with the Food Stamp, School Lunch, School Breakfast, and the WIC Programs.
  • USDA is the steward of our nation’s 192 million acres of national forests and rangelands.
  • USDA is the country’s largest conservation agency, encouraging voluntary efforts to protect soil, water, and wildlife on the 70 percent of America’s lands that are in private hands.
  • USDA brings housing, modern telecommunications, and safe drinking water to rural America.
  • USDA is responsible for the safety of meat, poultry, and egg products.
  • USDA is a research leader in everything from human nutrition to new crop technologies that allow us to grow more food and fiber using less water and pesticides.
  • USDA helps ensure open markets for U.S. agricultural products and provides food aid to needy people overseas.

To learn more about USDA:
Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services assists farmers and ranchers and represents American agriculture around the world.
Food, Nutrition, & Consumer Service runs the Federal food assistance programs and coordinates nutrition research and policy.
Food Safety administers the Federal meat and poultry inspection system and educates industry and consumers about food safety.
Marketing & Regulatory Programs assists with the marketing of American agricultural products and monitors animal and plant health and safety.
Natural Resources & Environment maintains our national forests and grasslands and promotes conservation of private lands.
Rural Development is dedicated to improving the economy and quality of life in rural America.
Research, Education, & Economics conducts agricultural and economic research to assess and develop solutions to agricultural problems.
Departmental Administration is USDA’s administrative, management organization. 

World Health Organization (WHO):
The World Health Organization, the United Nations specialized agency for health, was established on April 7, 1948. WHO’s objective is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health is defined in WHO’s Constitution as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
WHO is governed by 191 Member States through the World Health Assembly. The Health Assembly is composed of representatives from WHO’s Member States. The main tasks of the World Health Assembly are to approve the WHO Programme and the budget for the following biennium and to decide major policy questions. 

(Abbr) Term
  Anthropometric Measurement
  Bellmon Analysis & Determination
  Vulnerable People

TECHNICAL GLOSSARY: {= external link }

Measurements of the variations of the physical dimensions and the gross composition of the human body at different age levels and degrees of nutrition.

Anthropometric Measurement:
Includes measures of distance across shoulders (biacromial), head circumference, pelvic width, arm length, skinfold (fat) thickness, and many other indicators of human physical development. Anthropometric measures are used to indirectly assess the nutritional status of individuals. Specifically, those measurements used commonly in the growth monitoring of infants, children and school-aged children and to monitor the health and diets of entire populations.

Bellmon Analysis and Determination:
A Bellmon Analysis is required by US Federal law to determine that adequate storage facilities are available in the recipient country to prevent the spoilage or waste of commodity and importation of the commodity will not result in a substantial disincentive to or interference with domestic production or marketing in that country. The analysis also takes into account the Usual Marketing Requirement (UMR) of United States commercial commodities to ensure that there is no interference with this requirement.
A Bellmon Determination is supported by a Bellmon Analysis, which is prepared prior to the initiation of any PL 480 programs. In countries where PL 480 commodities are already being programmed, the Cooperating Sponsor (CS) reviews the existing Bellmon analysis to determine whether the marketplace can absorb the additional commodities, and whether storage is adequate. In countries where no PL 480 program is operating, the CS must conduct its own Bellmon analysis, unless an analysis has been or is being carried out by USAID. The Bellmon Determination must be recertified each year. For multi-year development programs, the Bellmon analysis must be updated annually by the CSs. 

The relative ability of nutrients in foods to be properly digested, and absorbed. For example, the iron in vegetable foods is less absorbable than the iron in meat foods. The bioavailability of iron in vegetables increases when vitamin C is also present, having been consumed during the same meal. 

Complementary Foods:
Complementary foods are required in appropriate quantities to complement breast-feeding or the “basic” foods by providing additional nutrients – especially vitamins and minerals. 

Food Aid:
Food Aid is a resource transfer, which can be conveyed in kind or monetized. In past, food aid has served a wide range of U.S. government purposes: surplus commodity disposal, relief aid and diverse development interventions. It has proven flexible enough so that it can be used in a variety of forms: balance of payments support, local currency for projects, or in directed feeding programs. In many cases, food-aid sales transactions within the recipient country have, in their own right, been an important development tool, helping to strengthen markets and encouraging policy change.
Food aid is a very flexible resource and can be used to support improved food security in a variety of ways. However, food aid is also a specialized resource, which requires careful consideration of programming circumstances and careful management. 

Food security:
People are “food secure” when they have regular access (either through production or purchasing power) to sufficient food for a healthy and productive life.

USAID definition of food security:
“When all people at all times have both physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet their dietary needs for a productive and healthy life.”

This definition further notes that “three distinct variables are central to the attainment of food security: availability, access, and utilization.” These variables are interrelated.

Food availability is achieved when sufficient quantities of food are consistently available to all individuals within a country. Such food can be supplied through household production, other domestic output, commercial imports or food assistance.

Food access is ensured when households and all individuals within them have adequate resources to obtain appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Access depends upon income available to the household, on the distribution of income within the household and on the price of food.

Food utilization is the proper biological use of food, requiring a diet providing sufficient energy and essential nutrients, potable water, and adequate sanitation. Effective food utilization depends in large measure on knowledge within the household of food storage and processing techniques, basic principles of nutrition and proper.

Food Deficit Countries:
Countries where food supplies are not sufficient to meet the population’s demands. Neither do they produce enough nor do they have sufficient foreign exchange to pay for imports needed to meet the country’s food demand.

Food Safety: 
WHO Food Safety Programme 
FAO Safety and Quality Assurance resource page 

Food fortification is an essential element in nutrition strategies to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies. It is a dynamic area developing in response to the needs of population groups and industry. Efforts are being made to develop improved and new systems of delivering micronutrients to target populations through appropriate fortification procedures. These initiatives involve governments, donor agencies, food industry, local academic institutions, food legislators and consumers. Adequate monitoring of food fortification is essential and should include both, monitoring of critical control points in the production and distribution of fortified foods and monitoring of micronutrient status of target populations, in establishing the need for intervention and to assess food fortification impact. The importance of this underlines the need for agreement on suitable clinical and analytical methodologies to be used, where satisfactory methodologies do not exist, improved procedures should be developed.

Some micronutrients are not always present or available naturally in sufficient amounts in foods. This can be due to lack of iodine in the soil where crops are grown, or in the case of other micronutrients such as iron or vitamin A, due to problems of bioavailability, unbalanced diets or intestinal parasites. Food fortification with micronutrients may help in overcoming deficiency problems. The major problems involved in fortifying foods include the identification of suitable vehicles, selection of appropriate fortificant compounds, determination of technologies to be used in the fortification process and the implementation of appropriate monitoring mechanisms to determine whether the goals of the programme are being met. Reliable methods for determining micronutrient status are required both in establishing the need for food fortification and in monitoring its nutritional impact. 
Link: Department of Health Food Fortification Project 

Former Soviet Union is comprised of 15 republics. The following republics joined the Commonwealth of Independent States, establishing economic and social partnerships: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine. 

Humanitarian Assistance:
This is a broad term that includes all types of external aid to respond to as well as prevent, mitigate, and prepare for, humanitarian emergencies. 

Internally Displaced Persons – IDP:
Internally Displaced Persons are persons who have been forced to flee or to leave their homes as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters. 

Malnutrition is the impairment of physical and/or mental health resulting from a failure to fulfill nutrient requirements. Malnutrition may result from consuming too little food, a shortage of key nutrients, or impaired absorption or metabolism due to disease. 

Vitamins and minerals required for human health and survival. A lack of micronutrients can contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Micronutrients play and important part in short-term human health, risk of death, and in long-term human function. 
Micronutrient Initiative 
International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders 
Helen Keller Intl 
Vitamin A Global Initiative 
American Thyroid Society 
European Thyroid Association 

Nutrition Security:
Nutrition security implies appropriate quantity and combination of food, nutrition, health services, and care takers time needed to ensure adequate nutrition status for an active and healthy life at all times for all people. 

PVO refers to Private Voluntary Organization. The USAID Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation (PVC) utilizes this term to refer to U.S nongovernmental organizations, primarily those that are registered with USAID and who work in partnership with the Agency. PVOs traditionally deal with international programs and are funded by private grants and contributions. In other countries the term used is non-governmental organization or NGO. 

Supplementary Feeding:
A program in which food is provided to selected individuals to prevent or treat malnutrition. The beneficiaries are selected, according to prescribed criteria, as being malnourished and/or nutritionally at risk, and are discharged when it is determined that they are no longer malnourished or at risk. The rations are additional to what the beneficiaries would normally receive as their share of the general household ration and food commodities selected reflect the unique physiological needs of this group. 

Targeting is a number of methods by which an intervention is designed or implemented so that benefits accrue selectively to only a portion of the overall population. Targeting can be achieved by geographic concentration, eligibility requirements such as age, sex or health status, or by tests that assess household income. 

Vulnerable People:
Term vulnerable people or populations usually refers to three basic groups of people categorized by the ability to take advantage of the development process: The potentially productive and mostly subsistence, chronically malnourished, landless, rural poor, urban under-employed, who typically buy or barter more food than they produce and are continually food insecure. The unemployed in rural but mostly in urban settings, who fail to meet their energy needs and are susceptible to illnesses, which place an additional burden on the potential for earning income. The chronically ill and disadvantaged whose ability to work is severely restricted.